“Scab Ministers, Striking Saints: Christianity and Class Conflict in 1894 Chicago,” American Nineteenth Century History 11, No. 3 (September 2010): 321-349. 

Winner of a national prize: the Working-Class Studies Association’s 2011 C.L.R. James Prize for best article.  Winner, also, of two prizes at the University of Notre Dame: the Phillip Gleason Prize for Best Article Published by a Graduate Student in History, and the Higgins Labor Center’s John Joyce Prize for Best Graduate Article.

– Cited in William A. Mirola, Redeeming Time: Protestantism and Chicago’s Eight-Hour Movement, 1866-1912 (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2015).

– Cited in Suellen Hoy, “The Irish Girls’ Rising: Building the Women’s Labor Movement in Progressive-Era Chicago,” Labor: Studies in Working-Class History of the Americas 9, no. 1 (Spring 2012): 87.

– Cited twice in the Featured Roundtable in the Journal of Southern Religion XIII (2011).  See responses by Richard J. Callahan, Jr., and Jarod Roll.

– Abstract: “Throughout 1894, Chicago’s churches were as divided by class as the nation itself. During the Pullman strike and boycott, the city’s leading Protestant and Catholic authorities hewed to an ideology of contract freedom that precluded support for the American Railway Union. Meanwhile, a handful of young Protestant ministers championed the strikers, echoing the criticisms of those working-class Protestants who had long decried the established churches’ ties to capital. This latter bloc expressed its frustration not merely with words but also through uprisings within local churches and even by founding a church of its own. In light of these findings, the author argues that a grassroots social Christianity preceded an elite Social Gospel; and furthermore, that the participation of working-class persons in the contests over the shape of modern Christianity demands a rethinking of the boundaries of both religious and working-class history.”

“Making Peace With Jim Crow: Religious Leaders and the Chicago Race Riot of 1919”, Journal of Illinois History 11 (Winter 2008): 261-276.

– Cited in David F. Krugler, 1919, The Year of Racial Violence: How African Americans Fought Back (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014).

– This article surveys religious reactions to the Chicago race riot of 1919, arguing, “Chicago’s white and black religious elite shared an underlying conservatism on race; advocates of racial uplift and yet opponents of social equality, the churches proved, in this way at least, bulwarks of Jim Crow.”